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Cattle Breeds

2011 Junior Livestock Updates


When George Grant transported four Angus bulls from Scotland to the middle of the Kansas Prairie in 1873, they were part of the Scotsman's dream to found a colony of wealthy, stock-raising Britishers. Grant died five years later, and many of the settlers at his Victoria, Kans., colony later returned to their homeland. However, these four Angus bulls, probably from the herd of George Brown of Westertown, Fochabers, Scotland, made a lasting impression on the U.S. cattle industry.

When two of the George Grant bulls were exhibited in the fall of 1873 at the Kansas City, Mo., Livestock Exposition, some considered them freaks because of their polled (naturally hornless) heads and solid black color. Grant, a forward thinker, crossed the bulls with native Texas Longhorn cows, producing a large number of hornless black calves that survived well on the winter range. The Angus crosses wintered better and weighed more the next spring, the first demonstration of the breed's value in their new homeland. 

Early Importers and Breeders

The first great herds of Angus beef cattle in America were built up by purchasing stock directly from Scotland. Twelve hundred cattle were imported, mostly to the Midwest, in a period of explosive growth between 1878 and 1883. Over the next quarter of a century these early owners helped start other herds by breeding, showing and selling their stock.

The American Angus Association

The American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association (name shortened in 1950s to American Angus Association) was founded in Chicago, Ill., on November 21, 1883, with 60 members. The growth of the association has paralleled the success of the Angus breed in America. In the first century of operation, more than 10 million head were recorded. The Association records more cattle each year than any other beef breed association, making it the largest beef breed registry association in the world.    www.angus.org


Braunvieh is a German word meaning "brown cattle." There were at least 12 types of brown cattle found in the mountains of Switzerland during the 1600s. These animals showed a wide variation in type and size, depending on where they were raised, and they form the basis for the modern Braunvieh.

Focused selection began in the canton of Schwyz. By the 19th century, breeders began to export these animals to surrounding regions. A breeders' society was formed in Switzerland in 1897 and is called Schweizerischer Braunviehzuchtverband. In 1974, Braunvieh accounted for 47 percent of the cattle found in Switzerland, second only to Simmental.

These cattle have been exported throughout the world, including Western Europe, former eastern block countries and Russia. In many cases the breed was used to improve the quality of the local cattle. In Europe, Braunvieh are still primarily used for milk production. In comparison to the European Holstein-Friesian, they are approximately equal in average daily gain, percent milk fat, percent milk protein, calving ease and calf mortality. Braunvieh are lower in milk yield, muscularity, age of sexual maturity and milk ability than Holstein-Friesian cattle.   


One of the oldest of the several breeds of French cattle, Charolais is considered of Jurassic origin and was developed in the district around Charolles in central France. The breed became established there and achieved considerable regard as a producer of highly-rated meat in the markets at Lyon and Villefranche in the 16th and 17th centuries.

One of the early influential herds in the region was started in 1840 by the Count Charles de Bouile. His selective breeding led him to set up a herd book in 1864 for the breed at his stable at Villars, near the village of Magny-Cours. Breeders in the Charolles vicinity established a herd book in 1882. The two societies merged in 1919, with the older organization taking the records of the later group into their headquarters at Nevers, the capital of the Nievre province.

Soon after World War I, a young Mexican industrialist of French name and ancestry, Jean Pugibet, decided to bring some of the French cattle to his ranch in Mexico. He had seen Charolais cattle during World War I while serving as a French army volunteer and was impressed by their appearance and productivity. He arranged for a shipment of two bulls and 10 heifers to Mexico in 1930. Two later shipments in 1931 and 1937 increased the total number to 37 - eight bulls and 29 females.

The first Charolais to come into the United States from Mexico are believed to be two bulls, Neptune and Ortolan, which were purchased from Pugibet by the King Ranch in Texas and imported in June 1936. From that beginning, the breed grew rapidly. Cattlemen admired both Charolais bulls and females for their muscling, correctness and size.    www.charolaisusa.com


Chianina (pronounced Kee-a-nee-na) is one of the oldest breeds of cattle in the world. Originating in Central Italy, Chianina were initially introduced into the United States in 1971, when the first Chianina semen was imported. The first Chianina born in the U.S. was a black half-blood Chianina X Angus/Holstein bull calf born on January 31, 1972. Beginning in 1975, Italian Fullblood Chianina were exported from Canada into this country.    www.chicattle.org


Historians' writings regarding the origin of the Galloway differ somewhat, but upon three points they generally agree. The breed is recognized to be a very ancient one with obscure origins shrouded in antiquity. Its name is derived from the word Gallovid or Gaul. The Gauls were the native inhabitants of the regality known as the Province of Galloway. This province once comprised six shires (counties) in the southernmost extremity of Scotland's Lowlands. The cattle of the region were said to be dark, smooth-polled and wavy-haired with undercoats like beavers' fur.    

Galloway cattle received recognition as a preferred breed as early as 1570, but Scottish Galloway breeders didn't begin their cattle genealogy until 1862.
The first Galloway came to Canada in 1853, and registration of these cattle began in 1872. Exactly 10 years later, during the Fat Stock Show in Chicago, Galloway breeders formed the first Galloway registry in the United States.   

The naturally polled, long-bodied, curly-haired cattle come in three primary colors - black, red and dun - and in three color patterns - solid, white park and belted - and are well adapted to harsh northern climates.    www.americangalloway.com


The Gelbvieh (pronounced Gelp-fee) breed is one of the oldest German cattle breeds, first found mainly in three Franconian districts of Bavaria. Starting in 1850, systematic breeding work began in stud herds. By purebreeding, the red-yellow Franconian cattle were developed from several local strains, including Celtic-German Landrace and Heil-Brown Landrace cattle.

This solid-colored breed of red-yellow cattle enjoyed great popularity as draft and slaughter cattle. The societies aimed at improvement through standardizing the indigenous breed by selecting the best bulls, purebreeding for a single color and improvement of performance in work fitness and milk production.

In 1897, the Breed Society for Yellow Franconian Cattle for Middle and Upper Franconia in Nurnberg was founded. It was followed by the Breed Society for Gelbvieh in Lower Franconia, based in Wurzburg and founded in 1899.

Since World War II, Germany has used a stringent selection program to repopulate its cattle herds. Only three percent of the registered cows are used to produce potential bulls. These cows are selected on structural soundness and conformation. Bulls from these select cows are performance-tested, and the top half are progeny-tested. The progeny evaluation includes gestation length, birth weight, calving ease, growth rate, slaughter weight, carcass quality conformation, udder soundness and fertility and milk production in daughters. Semen is released only from bulls that prove their superiority in progeny testing.

In the 1960s, Red Danish cattle were introduced to the herd book to improve milk prduction. Leness Hall, then director of International Marketing for Carnation Genetics, first saw Gelbvieh cattle in 1969. He worked toward importing Gelbvieh semen to the U.S., and finally was able to bring 43,000 units here in 1971. In that same year, the American Gelbvieh Association was formed.

Today, there are more than 70,000 active, registered Gelbvieh cows in the United States and approximately 2,000 active members of the American Gelbvieh Association (AGA). AGA is the largest Gelbvieh association in the world and ranks eighth in number of registered animals among beef breed associations in the United States. Most registered U.S. Gelbvieh are classified as purebreds and were bred up by mating fullbloods and purebred Gelbvieh bulls to foundation cows.

Today, there are no color restrictions for registration. However, the tradition of production testing has continued as AGA is one of only a few beef breed associations requiring performance data for registration. AGA has one of the most comprehensive performance programs in the world. Gelbvieh calves are widely recognized for excellence in growth, muscling and marketability, while Gelbvieh females are known for milking ability, fertility and quiet temperament.    www.gelbvieh.org


The Hereford breed was established near Hereford, county of Herefordshire, England, nearly 300 years ago as a product of necessity. Thrifty, enterprising British farmers were seeing the need to produce beef for the expanding food market created by Britain's industrial revolution.

To successfully meet this growing demand, these early-day cattlemen needed cattle which could efficiently convert native grasses to beef, and do it at a profit. No breed at that time could fill that need, so the farmers of Herefordshire developed and founded the breed that logically became known as Herefords.

Benjamin Tomkins is credited with being a primary founder of the Hereford breed. He began in 1742 with a bull calf from the cow Silver and two cows, Pidgeon and Mottle, inherited from his father's estate. This was 18 years before Robert Bakewell began developing his theories of animal breeding. Tomkins' goals were economy in feeding, natural ability to grow and gain on grass and grain, rustling ability, hardiness, early maturity and high rates of reproduction, traits that are still of primary importance today.

Other pioneering breeders followed Tomkins' lead and established the world-wide reputation for these Herefordshire cattle, thus causing their exportation from England to wherever grass grows and beef production is possible.

Herefords in the 1700s and early 1800s in England were much larger than today's. Many mature Herefords of those days weighed 3,000 pounds or more when displayed in 1839.
Gradually, the type and conformation changed to less extreme size and weight in order to get more quality and efficiency.    www.hereford.org


Although records on Highland cattle first brought to this country from Scotland are rather obscure, due to the fact that there was no registry for them, we know there were small importations, made from time to time.

Highland cattle may have been brought to the East-Coast states in the 1920s. The earliest importation on record was made by S. F. Biddle, consisting of three carloads of heifers and bulls. They were unloaded at Moorcroft, Wyo., and trailed to the Powder River. Another importation was made by Walter Hill, into Montana, and it is descendants of this importation that have played an important part in our present-day cattle.

The first four bulls and the first 45 cows in the U. S. registry are made up of these cattle and were registered by Baxter Berry of Belvidere, S.D.    www.highlandcattleusa.org


The history of Limousin cattle may be as old as the European continent itself. Cattle found in cave drawings estimated to be 20,000 years old in the Lascaux Cave near Montignac, France, have a striking resemblance to today's Limousin. These golden-red cattle are native to the south central part of France in the regions of Limousin and Marche.

During these early times of animal power, Limousin gained a reputation as work animals, in addition to their beef qualities. Rene Lafarge reported in 1698, "Limousin oxen were universally renowned and esteemed both as beasts of burden and beef cattle."

The cows calved year round, outdoors, to bring in a regular source of income, and the heifers were bred to calve at 3 years of age. In the winter, the entire herd was outside, and whatever the season, the cattle were handled on a daily basis.

A leader in the natural selection movement was Charles de Leobary and his herdsman, Royer. Through a very tough process, these two developed an outstanding herd of purebred Limousin. From 1854 to 1896 the de Leobary herd won a total of 265 ribbons at the prestigious Bordeaux Competition, one of France's finest cattle shows.

The first Limousin imported to Canada was Prince Pompadour, a son of Baron, bred at the highly-respected Pompadour Estate of France. Through the efforts of Adrien de Moustier of France and others, the bull arrived in November 1968. An impressive bull, Prince Pompadour had been selected by noted French breeder Emil Chastanet as a herd bull for his operation. After his arrival, Prince Pompadour was brought to the United States to be part of Limousin exhibitions and draw attention to the breed.

The first Limousin bulls imported permanently into the United States did not arrive until the fall of 1971. Until this time, the Canadian government had not permitted any Limousin bulls to leave the country except for short periods for exhibition purposes, and then only if the owners posted a large bond that was refunded when the animal returned to Canada.
The first U.S. import, Kansas Colonel, was born and raised in Canada and was imported by Bob Haag of Topeka, Kans., for a group of Kansas Limousin breeders.

The first Limousin semen was available from Prince Pompadour in July 1969.

As the first Limousin cattle arrived in North America, cattlemen interested in the breed realized the need for an organization to promote and develop the breed in the United States and Canada. At one of these meetings, in the spring of 1968 at the Albany Hotel in Denver, 15 cattlemen formed the North American Limousin Foundation. From the initial concentrations in Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota and western Canada, the Limousin breed has expanded across North America.    www.nalf.org


Mexico, Texas, and what was then the Louisiana Purchase became the major blending pot for the evolution of this history-making Texas Longhorn breed of cattle. So old-timers contend the big horns, speckled colors and body types were derived from importation to the States out of the Longhorn Herefords of England. Others believe the blue and roan speckled stock reflected early Durham (shorthorn) introductions. The Spanish influence was represented by drab, earth tone colors.

Although "Mexican" cattle of the long horned variety provided the basic strain, historian J. Frank Dobie documented that an infiltration of cattle of mongrel American blood contributed to the evolution of the Texas Longhorn. Dobie estimated the Texas Longhorn evolved as 80 % Spanish influence and 20% mongrel influence. Thus, the Texas Longhorn was created, imported to North America from many different routes, defined and refined by nature, tested by the crucible of time and the elements. Through the mid-1800s, these range-rugged, big horned cattle multiplied without the help of man. Traits were genetically fixed, and as a result of survival of the fittest, resulted in ecologically adapted bovine families with extremely good heath, fertility, teeth, disease resistance, and soundness of body and limb. They multiplied by the millions.

In 1890, the United States Department of Agriculture estimated the nation's cattle population at 60 million head, mostly containing percentages of Texas Longhorn Blood. In the early 20th Century, purebred cattle breeds from Europe and Asia became available to fit the desires of early ranchers. The foundation stock of introduced breeds such as Hereford, Shorthorn, and Angus were bred up to purebreds in this country from a native Longhorn base. Because of the great mothering ability of the Longhorn and the popularity of this "breeding up", pure Longhorn blood was practically bred out of existence.

By 1930, much open range was fenced, and southwestern cattle barons zeroed in on their favorite breeds of fat cattle. However, the historic Texas Longhorn was the time tested choice of some serious producers. Although later trading occurred between Longhorn producers, six unique strains were selectively perpetuated by private ranch families before 1931. Several early producers were instrumental in providing Longhorn genetics when the United States Government realized the near extinction of these creatures. The government herd, established in 1927 at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Cache, Oklahoma, was to become the seventh of the preserved Texas Longhorn families. These family genetics established in the early thirties and before are still maintained by family members and friends. Today producers of Texas Longhorns either raise their favorite family bloodline in a pure state or mix and select combinations of several family bloodlines.   


Australian Lowlines, sometimes known as Loalas in the United States, are essentially miniature Angus cattle that resulted from a 30-year research project conducted by the New South Wales State Department of Agriculture at their Agricultural Research Centre located at Trangie, Australia.

The Trangie Stud's Angus herd was established to provide high quality Aberdeen-Angus cattle for New South Wales beef producers. The original registered Angus foundation stock was imported in 1929 from James D. McGregor's Glencarnock stud in Canada.

The lineage of Loala cattle can be traced to 1889 when Walter F.C. Gordon-Cuming, brother of a leading Scottish breeder, imported 43 head to Canada to form the basis of the illustrious Angus herd of the Glencarnock Farm in Brandon, Manitoba.

The development of the herd was successfully guided by James D. McGregor, who started in the cattle business in 1877. McGregor was attracted to the Angus for three main reasons: they were polled, they matured to market-finish quicker on grass and they proved prolific on western Canadian ranges - all traits that are still true today.

Three decades later, Australian animal scientists began to develop the Lowline breed from registered Aberdeen-Angus seedstock purchased from the Glencarnock Angus herd. The original Australian importation from the Glencarnock Canadian herd included two bulls, one cow and calf, and 17 heifers.

The two bulls, Glencarnock Revolution and Brave Edward Glencarnock, were from the famous Blackcap Revolution family.   www.usa-lowline.org    


The Maine-Anjou breed originated in the northwestern part of France. At the beginning of the 19th century, the cattle in this region were large, well-muscled animals with light-red coats spotted with white. These cattle were known as the Mancelle breed.

In addition to their size and muscling, the Mancelle has a reputation for their easy fattening. Laclere-Thouin, an agriculturist, wrote in 1843 that on the community pastures of the Auge Valley, the Mancelle "were the last to be put onto the grass, but were the first to be picked out to go to the markets in the capital city."

In 1839 the Count de Falloux, a landowner, imported Durham cattle from England and crossed them with the Mancelle. The cross was extremely successful, and by 1850 Durham-Mancelle animals were winning championships at the French agricultural fairs. In 1908 the Society of Durham-Mancelle Breeders was formed at Chateau-Gontier in the Mayenne district.

In 1909 the name was changed to the Society of Maine-Anjou Cattle Breeders, taking the name from the Maine and Anjou river valleys. Breeders of the cattle were mostly small farmers whose goal was to maximize income from their small area of land. For this reason, the Maine-Anjou evolved as a dual-purpose breed, with the cows used for milk production and the bull calves fed for market. It is still common on many farms to find Maine-Anjou being milked.

The Maine-Anjou is one of the larger breeds developed in France, with mature bulls weighing from 2,200 to 3,100 pounds on the average. Mature cows will range from 1,500 to 1,900 pounds. Their coloring is very dark red with white markings on the head, belly, rear legs and tail. White on other parts of the body also is common.

The first Maine-Anjou cattle imported into North America came to Canada in 1969. These cattle were then introduced to the United States through artificial insemination. The Maine-Anjou Society Inc. was established in Nebraska in 1969, and included both American and Canadian members. In 1971 the name was changed to the International Maine-Anjou Association, and headquarters were set up in the Livestock Exchange Building in Kansas City, Mo. The name was changed in 1976 to the American Maine-Anjou Association.    http://www.maine-anjou.org

Miniature Hereford

In 1969, a breeding program was initiated to develop the Miniature Hereford, starting with certified dwarf-free Hereford bloodlines. The goal was three-fold: fertility, conformation and a small-size cow with the genetics to wean a calf weighing at least 50 percent of her weight.

The aim was to produce a cow that would raise and sell more beef per acre, and a calf that would gain profitably and provide a more desirable-sized steak. Thicker and chunkier in appearance, Miniature Herefords are just the opposite of the long-legged show bovine of today. They are early-maturing, excellent feed converters, easy keepers and very gentle.

The little Herefords are hardy and adaptable to various environments. Presently, they reside in more than 30 states, as well as Canada and Australia.

Miniature Herefords are naturally docile and make excellent show animals for any level of competition. Two or three may be kept in place of one modern-sized cow. Each miniature mother will wean a calf weighing a higher percentage of her mature weight. They are also practical for stocking larger operations and can help in the movement that is presently underway to return to a more muscular, chunky type of animal that is able to thrive without pampering.

The national average weaning ratio is 35 to 40 percent of the dam's weight. With Miniature Herefords, a 65 percent weaning ratio can be achieved. The average rib eye area is usually stated as being one square-inch per 100 pounds of live body weight. Miniature Herefords average a 1.5-inch rib eye per 100 pounds of live body weight.

In 1994, the first Miniature Hereford show was held in Kansas, announcing the arrival of a new type of beef animal.   


Twenty-five thousand years ago, a migration of Zebu or Brahman cattle from Pakistan made its way into northwestern Italy. Blocked by the Alps Mountains from moving further, these cattle stayed and intermingled with the local native cattle, the Auroch.

This blend of Auroch and Brahman evolved in that harsh terrain to become the Piedmontese breed of today. There are several breeds from Italy which also show the influence of this Brahman migration. These are known as the Italian white breeds. The similarity to the Piedmontese does not go further than the color; all Italian white breeds, Piedmontese included, are born tan and change to the grey-white color, with black skin pigmentation. The Piedmontese, however, also carry genetic traits absolutely unique to them.

The Italian Herdbook was opened in 1887, after the appearance of double muscling was noted in the cattle in 1886. Over one hundred years later, the genetic component which gives rise to the greatly increased muscle, or beef, production of this breed was discovered Myostatin.

Myostatin occurs naturally in all mammals. Its effect is to restrict muscle growth. However, when the gene has naturally mutated, as is the case with the Piedmontese cattle, it can become inactive and no longer prevents muscle development. This allows for what has been called double muscling- a very misleading term. In reality, the disfunctional
Myostatin removes the growth governor and allows these cattle to develop on average 14 percent more muscle mass than cattle with functional Myostatin.

In Italy, the Piedmontese have been, and many still are today, utilized as a dual-purpose animal...having very rich milk used for specialty cheese production and beef marketed as a premium product.   

Red Angus

Like most modern American beef breeds, the Red Angus breed had its beginning in Europe. In the eighth-century, according to some authorities, hardy Norsemen raiding the coasts of England and Scotland brought with them small, dun-colored hornless cattle, which interbred with black native Celtic cattle of inland Scotland.

A naturally polled black breed was produced, which roughly corresponded to the black Aberdeen-Angus of today, although it was a considerably smaller-bodied animal. The polled characteristic was very slow to spread inland, and for almost 1,000 years was confined principally to the coastal areas of England and Scotland.

Eric L.C. Pentecost, the noted English breeder of Red Angus cattle, offers a specific and logical explanation for the introduction of the red coloration into the Aberdeen-Angus breed. In the 18th century, the black Scottish cattle were too light to provide sufficiently large draught oxen, so larger English longhorns, predominantly red in color, were brought in and crossed with the black native polled breed. The resultant offspring were all black polled animals, since black is a dominant color, and red a recessive one. However, all carried the red gene. Subsequent interbreeding produced an average of one red calf in four, in accordance with Mendel's law of heredity.    www.redangus.org


As one of the last European breeds to be imported into North America, the Salers (Sa'lair) breed has made tremendous strides in growth, and is now an influential part of the American cattle industry. Currently, the breed is registering over 28,400 head per year.

The historical journey for the Salers breed was first recorded by archaeologists as depicted from ancient cave drawings dated some 7,000 years ago. The drawings were found near Salers, a small medieval town in the center of France. These drawings and the Salers cattle of today, which are very different from all other French breeds, bear some resemblance to the ancient Egyptian red cattle. With such a unique background, the breed is considered to be one of the oldest and most genetically pure of all European breeds.

Salers cattle are now known to be native to the Auvergne region of south central France. This isolated, mountainous area noted for its rough, rocky terrain and harsh, damp climate is characterized by poor soil and a wide range of temperatures throughout the summer and long winter. As the topography allowed for little cereal grain production, the Salers cattle were forced to become foragers with bred-in range-ability to utilize, almost entirely, native grasses in summer and hay in winter.

Until modern times Salers cattle were respected not only as beef animals, but as milk producers for cheese products, and were also utilized as strong sources of animal power.

Salers cattle are typically horned and dark mahogany red in color, however a growing number of polled and black Salers are available.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a group of Canadians and Americans were impressed by Salers in France, and eventually imported the first Salers bull, Valliant, into Canada in 1972. His semen was sold both in the United States and Canada.

Grassroots cattlemen were the breed's U.S. founders. They felt the cattle should prove themselves under the tough rigors and conditions of the commercial cattle industry before Salers cattle were widely marketed. This led to the historical formation of the American Salers Association in 1974 by 14 innovative and progressive cattlemen in Minneapolis, Minn.

The first imports directly into the United States came in 1975 with the arrival of one bull and four heifers. From 1975 to 1978, 52 heifers and six bulls reached the United States and more than 100 arrived in Canada. These cattle are the foundation of the breed in North America.   


The Shorthorn breed of cattle originated on the northeastern coast of England in the counties of Northumberland, Durham, York and Lincoln. The first real development of the breed occurred in the valley of the Tees River about 1600. The large-framed cattle that inhabited this fertile valley became known as Teeswater cattle. The breed later spread to Scotland and then to America in 1783.

When first brought to Virginia, the breed had attained the name Durham. Shorthorns were popular with America's early settlers for their meat and milk, as well as their willing power for the wagon and plow. The breed followed pioneer wagons across the Great Plains and into the far West.

By 1854, Midwestern farmers had begun direct importations from Scotland, concentrating their efforts on Shorthorns strictly for beef production. Even in its early history, the breed was recognized because of its ability to adapt. It could be easily bred with the Spanish breed, Longhorns, brought in earlier by conquistadors.

Although Shorthorns came first, Midwesterners in 1870 discovered naturally hornless cattle occurred from time to time in horned herds.
Thus, Polled Shorthorns were discovered and were the first major beef breed to be developed in the United States, having gained its origin in 1881 in Minnesota.

Polled Shorthorns possess the same qualities for adaptability, mothering ability, reproductive performance, good disposition, feed conversion, longevity and popularity as their horned counterparts.    www.shorthorn.org


The Simmental is among the oldest and most widely distributed of all breeds of cattle in the world. Although the first official herdbook was established in the Swiss Canton of Berne in 1806, there is evidence of large, productive red and white cattle being found much earlier in ecclesiastical and secular property records of western Switzerland. Those red and white animals were highly sought because of their "rapid growth development; outstanding production of milk, butter and cheese; and for their use as draught (draft) animals." They were known for their gentle nature, impressive stature and excellent dairy qualities.

As early as 1785, the Swiss Parliament limited exports because of a shortage of cattle to meet their own needs. The Swiss Red and White Spotted Simmental Cattle Association was formed in 1890.

Since its origin in Switzerland, the breed has spread to all six continents. Total numbers are estimated between 40 and 60 million Simmental cattle worldwide, with more than half in Europe. The worldwide spread was gradual until the late 1960s.

There are unsubstantiated reports from a variety of sources indicating Simmental cattle arrived in the United States before the turn of the century. Simmental were reported as early as 1887 in Illinois, according to one source; in 1895 in New Jersey; and in New York and New Mexico around the 1916-1920 period. An ad in an 1896 issue of the Breeder's Gazette, published in Chicago, also made reference to "Simmenthal" cattle. Apparently, those early imports did not capture the imagination of the American cattleman and the Simmental influence died quietly away until they were reintroduced in the late 1960s.    www.simmental.org

South Devon

South Devons originate from the counties of Devon and Cornwall in southwest England, where they have been a distinct breed since the 16th century. They are the largest of the British breeds, and are not related to Devon cattle, which also are from England.

The first South Devons were brought to the United States in 1969 and in 1974. The North American South Devon Association was formed for the purpose of development, registration and promotion of the South Devon breed of cattle in this country.

The breed is exceptionally adaptable to varying climatic conditions and is presently well established on five continents. Wherever they have been introduced, South Devons have been well accepted and exhibited strong performance for production and profitability. Red and black South Devons are available around the world.    www.southdevon.com

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